|Cell Activation Test
Cell Activation Test Kits with Pholasin are easy-to-use, rapid, ultra-sensitive and can even be used with capillary blood.They are chemiluminescent tests that measure real-time production of free radicals and degranulation. They can be used to monitor changes in the respiratory burst during different exercise regimes.
Kit components sufficient for 100 x 200μL tests
A.1 x bottle Pholasin® (50μg)
B.1 x bottle Adjuvant-K™ (reconstitute to 5mL)
C.1 x bottles fMLP (reconstitute to 2.5 mL)
D.2 x bottles PMA (reconstitute to 2.5 mL)
E.1 x bottles Reconstitution and Assay Buffer (50 mL)
F.1 x 96 well white luminometer microplates
They can be used to:
1. Measure the respiratory burst in leucocytes.
2. Dtudy abnormalities in NADPH oxidase such as occur in different types of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and various polymorphisms.
3. Distinguish between receptor activation and intracellular activation of NADPH oxidase.
4. Monitor changes in the activation of the NADPH oxidase in response to complement activation, infection, inflammation and medical intervention.
Thus having applications in:
- biocompatibility monitoring
- drug evaluation and testing
- QC of vaccines
- disease management
- assessing neutrophil activity following chemotherapy, transplantation etc.
5. Monitor degranulation of myeloperoxidase.
6. Ultra-sensitive detection of free radicals and oxidants produced by a range of cell types including brain cells.
The NADPH oxidase when activated forms a complex of proteins that assembles at the inner surface of the plasma membrane. There a constant stream of superoxide is released to the outside of the cells via a continual transfer of electrons (from NADPH) through the membrane to oxygen. The term respiratory burst was used to describe this event because of the very large amounts of oxygen (10-20 times above normal) that are consumed during the oxidation of glucose to NADPH, which ironically is not via mitochondrial respiration. The membrane component of the NADPH oxidase also occurs on secondary granule membranes which fuse with other granules as well as the plasma membrane during deganulation. Degranulation frequently follows the activation of the oxidase depending upon the nature of the stimulus. And because the overwhelming amount of free radicals, oxidants and enzymes are released to the outside of the cells, methods that only measure intracellular hydrogen peroxide from the dismutation of superoxide quantify only a small part of the respiratory burst.